HAI’s (Healthcare Associated Infections) also called nosocomial infection
are infection thats are acquired in a hospital or other Healthcare facility .
These infections develop after germ or bacterial contamination in a healthcare facility. Pathogen agents spread easily trought the skin, so people with a weakened immune system are fragile. The contamination could be from air, water, materials, or food. HAI could appear 30 days after a chirurgical operation or one year after a stranger material in the body e.g heart valve.
A Survey reported that in 2011 there were an estimated 722000 HAIs in U.S.
During hospitalization, patient is exposed to pathogens through different sources environment, healthcare staff, and other infected patients.
HAI are divided in 4 parts :
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) – bloodstream infection
Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) – an infection involving any part of the urinary system
Surgical Site Infection (SSI) – an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place
Ventilator Associated Penumonia (VAP) – Lung infection
Heathcare Associted Infection appear depending on the facility, the type of staying and the time that the patient stay in the clinical setting. Indeed, like legionella contamination, people who are 65 years old, or children, or people with a weakened immune system are more exposed.
Measures of prevention exist in clinical settings to reduce infections. Clinical staff, patient and visitors have to respect all hygiene measures developped in healthcare facility.